The Origin of the Celts - Archaeology, Suggested reading

 

Some important archaeological sites:  

GERMANY

Schwarzenbach

Kleinaspergle

Waldalgesheim

Rodenbach

Pfalzfeld

Fellbach-Schmiden

Manching-Steinbichel

Holzhausen

Mźnchen-Obermenzing

Altmźhl

Giengen

Klettham

Hochscheid

Bescheid

Reinheim

Niederzier  

DENMARK

Gundestrup

Brä

(the cauldrons found at these sites are almost certainly of foreign origin)  

SWITZERLAND

La TŹene

Erstfeld

Saint-Sulpice

Yverdon  

FRANCE

Entremont

Roquepertuse

EnsŽrune

Somme-Bionne

Bussy-le-Château

Épernay

Berru

Suippes

Conflans

Gournay-sur-Aronde

Ribemont

Amfreville

Mont-Beuvray

Basse-Yutz

SauniŹres

BesanŤon

Aurillac

Bourges

Lasgrai'sses

Euffigneix

Neuvy-en-Sullias

Bouray-sur-Juine

ChamaliŹres

Roanne

Agris  

BELGIUM

LŽglise

Ville-sur-Retourne

Frasne-lez-Buissenal

Leval-Trahegnies  

LUXEMBOURG

Goeblingen-Nospelt  

NETHERLANDS

Nijmegen  

BRITAIN

Maiden Castle

Uffington

Danebury

Arras/Wetwang Slack

Aylesford

Hayling Island

Llyn Cerrig Bach

Snettisham

Dťn Beag

Dťn Carlobhagh  

IRELAND

Knocknashee

Caherdrinny

Dśn Aonghusa

Dśn Conchobhair

Dśn Eochla

Rathgall

Navan Fort (Emain Macha)

Rath Cruachain

Dśn Ailinne

Tara

Benagh

Spinan Hills  

SPAIN

Numantia

Botorrita

Pe–alba de Villastar

Lara de los Infantes

Las Cogotas

Segobriga

Nemetobriga  

PORTUGAL

Ch‹o de Lamas

Guiaes

Lezenho

Vilas Boas

Citania de Sanfins  

ITALY

Carzaghetto/Cannetto sull' Oglio

Lonato

Benacci

Monte Bibele

Ceretolo

Saliceta San Giuliano

Montefortino

Santa Paolina di Filottrano

Moscano di Fabriano

Santa Canosa in Puglia  

AUSTRIA

Dźrrnberg

Pottenbrźnn

Mannersdorf  

CZECH REPUBLIC

Chynov

Drouzkovice

Duchcov

MseckŽ Zehrovice

Horni Ksely

Brno-Malomerice

Chlum  

SLOVAKIA

Izkovice

Vel'ky Grob

Drna

Palárikovo  

HUNGARY

Sopron

Kosd

Szárazd Regöly

Szob  

CROATIA

Batina  

SERBIA

Gajic

Gomolava

Mala Vrbica-Ajmana Beograd-Karaburma  

POLAND

Iwanowice  

ROMANIA

Piscolt

Ciumesti  

BULGARIA

Mezek  

UKRAINE

Kerch

Galis Lovacka  

TURKEY

Karalar

Tabanlioglu Kale  

Selective list of noteworthy artifacts:

Vessels:

Schwarzenbach cup (Germany)

Basse-Yutz flagons (France)

Gundestrup cauldron (Denmark; prob. from Eastern Europe)

Aylesford bucket (Britain)

Buckets from Goeblingen-Nospelt (Luxembourg)

Bronze mounts for wooden jugs from Brno-Malomerice (Czech Republic)

Warrior gear:

Agris helmet (France)

Berru helmet (France)

Helmet from Santa Canosa in Puglia (Italy)

Ciumesti helmet (Romania)

Waterloo Bridge helmet (Britain)

Benacci helmet (Italy)

Amfreville helmet (France)

Battersea shield (Britain)

Washingborough shield (Britain)

Wandsworth shield boss (Britain)

Horned pony cap from Torrs (Britain)

Horse mask from Stanwick (Britain)

Sword scabbard from Standlake (Britain)

Bronze scabbard-plate from the Bann (Ireland)

Sword and scabbard from Kosd (Hungary)

Tesson sword (France)  

Phalerae (circular metallic pieces to ornament a horse's harness):

Bronze phalera from Cuperly (France)

Silver phalera from Ch‹o de Lamas (Portugal)

Large silver phalera from Brescia (Italy)

Bronze phalera from Somme-Bionne (France)

Bronze and enamel harness ornament from Kerch (Ukraine)  

Personal adornments:

Rodenbach armlet (Germany)

Silver armlet from Guiaes (Portugal)

Trichtingen torc (Germany)

Waldalgesheim torc (Germany)

Snettisham torc (Britain)

Fenouillet torc (France)

Vilas Boas gold torc (Portugal)

Gold torcs from Erstfeld (Switzerland)

Montans torc (France)

Mailly-le-Camp torc (France)

Ardnaglug torc (Ireland)

Gold bracelets and earrings from La Butte Sainte-Colombe (France)

Gold necklace with pendants from Szárazd Regöly (Hungary)

Bronze brooch from Carratiermes (Spain)

Bronze pendant from Skryje (Czech Republic)

Monteferrino earrings (Italy)

Gold diadem from Elvi–a (Spain)

"Petrie" crown (Ireland)

Broighter gold treasure-hoard (Ireland)  

Statuary and ritual sculpture:

Stone head from MseckŽ Zehrovice (Czech Republic)

Ritual sculptures from Roquepertuse temple (France)

Boar deity from Euffigneix (France)

Seated deity from Bouray-sur-Juine (France)

Holzgerlingen deity (Germany)

Wooden stags from Feldbach-Schmiden ritual shaft (Germany)

Stone cippus from Kermaria (Brittany)

Stone cippus from Pfalzfeld (Germany)

Stone cippus from Waldbuch (Germany)

Stone cippus from Turoe (Ireland)

Some basic reading:

Cunliffe "The Ancient Celts": pp. 68-90 (The Migrations); pp. 91-110 (Warfare and Society); pp. 111-132 (Arts); pp. 133-144 (Iberia); pp. 145-167 (Atlantic Celts); pp. 168-182 (Eastern Celts); pp. 183-210 (Religion); pp. 211-234 (Last Phases of the Iron Age).

James "The World of the Celts": pp. 33-49 (The Celtic Lands); pp. 50-71 (The Patterns of Life); pp. 72-85 (The Celts at War); pp. 86-103 (Gods and the Afterlife); pp. 104-115 (La TeŹne Art and Technology).

Rizzoli "The Celts": pp. 127-192 (The Formation of the La TŹene Culture -- Fifth Century BC); pp. 195-300 (The First Historical Expansion -- Fourth Century BC); pp. 303-386 (The Age of the Warriors -- Third Century BC); pp. 389-408 (The Celts of Iberia); pp. 411-552 (The Era of the Oppida -- Second/First Century BC); pp. 555-618 (The Island Celts).  

Other important sources:

CUNLIFFE, Barry: _Iron Age Communities in Britain_ Henley & Boston, 1974 [revised 1978].

GREEN, Miranda. ed.: _The Celtic World_. London & New York, 1995. NASH, Daphne: _Coinage in the Celtic World_. London, 1987.

RAFTERY, Barry: _Pagan Celtic Ireland: The Enigma of the Irish Iron Age_. London & New York, 1994.

ROSS, Anne: _The Pagan Celts_ (originally _Everyday Life of the Pagan Celts_). Totowa, NJ, 1986 [London & New York, 1970].  

Daithi O'Hogain's _Celtic Warriors_ (New York, 1999) has an extremely useful extended appendix giving a detailed description of the political groupings of the Celts in the later Iron Age.  

Some essential Classical sources on Iron Age Celtic history:

CAESAR: _De bello gallico_ (The Gallic War).

DIODORUS SICULUS: The Library of History (esp. Book V).

LIVY (TITUS LIVIUS): The History of Rome (esp. Books V and XXI).

POLYBIUS: Histories (esp. Book II).

STRABO: Geography.